Saturday, May 22, 2010

SCJP 1.4 Objectives  

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Section 1: Declarations and Access Control
Write code that declares, constructs and initializes arrays of any base type using any of the permitted forms both for declaration and for initialization.
Declare classes, nested classes, methods, instance variables, static variables and automatic (method local) variables making appropriate use of all permitted modifiers (such as public, final, static, abstract, etc.). State the significance of each of these modifiers both singly and in combination and state the effect of package relationships on declared items qualified by these modifiers.
For a given class, determine if a default constructor will be created and if so state the prototype of that constructor.
Identify legal return types for any method given the declarations of all related methods in this or parent classes.
Section 2: Flow control, Assertions, and Exception Handling
Write code using if and switch statements and identify legal argument types for these statements.
Write code using all forms of loops including labeled and unlabeled, use of break and continue, and state the values taken by loop counter variables during and after loop execution.
Write code that makes proper use of exceptions and exception handling clauses (try, catch, finally) and declares methods and overriding methods that throw exceptions.
Recognize the effect of an exception arising at a specified point in a code fragment. Note: The exception may be a runtime exception, a checked exception, or an error (the code may include try, catch, or finally clauses in any legitimate combination).
Write code that makes proper use of assertions, and distinguish appropriate from inappropriate uses of assertions.
Identify correct statements about the assertion mechanism.
Section 3: Garbage Collection
State the behavior that is guaranteed by the garbage collection system.
Write code that explicitly makes objects eligible for garbage collection.
Recognize the point in a piece of source code at which an object becomes eligible for garbage collection.
Section 4: Language Fundamentals
Identify correctly constructed package declarations, import statements, class declarations (of all forms including inner classes) interface declarations, method declarations (including the main method that is used to start execution of a class), variable declarations, and identifiers.
Identify classes that correctly implement an interface where that interface is either java.lang.Runnable or a fully specified interface in the question.
State the correspondence between index values in the argument array passed to a main method and command line arguments.
Identify all Java programming language keywords. Note: There will not be any questions regarding esoteric distinctions between keywords and manifest constants.
State the effect of using a variable or array element of any kind when no explicit assignment has been made to it.
State the range of all primitive formats, data types and declare literal values for String and all primitive types using all permitted formats bases and representations.
Section 5: Operators and Assignments
Determine the result of applying any operator (including assignment operators and instance of) to operands of any type class scope or accessibility or any combination of these.
Determine the result of applying the boolean equals (Object) method to objects of any combination of the classes java.lang.String, java.lang.Boolean and java.lang.Object.
In an expression involving the operators &, |, &&, || and variables of known values state which operands are evaluated and the value of the expression.
Determine the effect upon objects and primitive values of passing variables into methods and performing assignments or other modifying operations in that method.
Section 6: Overloading, Overriding, Runtime Type and Object Orientation
State the benefits of encapsulation in object oriented design and write code that implements tightly encapsulated classes and the relationships "is a" and "has a".
Write code to invoke overridden or overloaded methods and parental or overloaded constructors; and describe the effect of invoking these methods.
Write code to construct instances of any concrete class including normal top level classes and nested classes.
Section 7: Threads
Write code to define, instantiate and start new threads using both java.lang.Thread and java.lang.Runnable.
Recognize conditions that might prevent a thread from executing.
Write code using synchronized wait, notify and notifyAll to protect against concurrent access problems and to communicate between threads.
Define the interaction among threads and object locks when executing synchronized wait, notify or notifyAll.
Section 8: Fundamental Classes in the java.lang Package
Write code using the following methods of the java.lang.Math class: abs, ceil, floor, max, min, random, round, sin, cos, tan, sqrt.
Describe the significance of the immutability of String objects.
Describe the significance of wrapper classes, including making appropriate selections in the wrapper classes to suit specified behavior requirements, stating the result of executing a fragment of code that includes an instance of one of the wrapper classes, and writing code using the following methods of the wrapper classes (e.g., Integer, Double, etc.):
o doubleValue
o floatValue
o intValue
o longValue
o parseXxx
o getXxx
o toString
o toHexString
Section 9: The Collections Framework
Make appropriate selection of collection classes/interfaces to suit specified behavior requirements.
Distinguish between correct and incorrect implementations of hashcode methods.

SCJP 5.0 Objectives  

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The latest version of SCJP exam is SCJP 5.o. After the SCJP 1.4 instead of calling the exam 1.5 Sun started calling it SCJP 1.5. Though similar to SCJP 1.4, the exam objectives are quite different. Here are the actual exam objectives For latest objectives check http://www.sun.com/training/catalog/courses/CX-310-055.xml Section 1: Declarations, Initialization and Scoping
Develop code that declares classes (including abstract and all forms of nested classes), interfaces, and enums, and includes the appropriate use of package and import statements (including static imports).
Develop code that declares an interface. Develop code that implements or extends one or more interfaces. Develop code that declares an abstract class. Develop code that extends an abstract class.
Develop code that declares, initializes, and uses primitives, arrays, enums, and objects as static, instance, and local variables. Also, use legal identifiers for variable names.
Develop code that declares both static and non-static methods, and - if appropriate - use method names that adhere to the JavaBeans naming standards. Also develop code that declares and uses a variable-length argument list.
Given a code example, determine if a method is correctly overriding or overloading another method, and identify legal return values (including covariant returns), for the method.
Given a set of classes and superclasses, develop constructors for one or more of the classes. Given a class declaration, determine if a default constructor will be created, and if so, determine the behavior of that constructor. Given a nested or non-nested class listing, write code to instantiate the class.
Section 2: Flow Control
Develop code that implements an if or switch statement; and identify legal argument types for these statements.
Develop code that implements all forms of loops and iterators, including the use of for, the enhanced for loop (for-each), do, while, labels, break, and continue; and explain the values taken by loop counter variables during and after loop execution.
Develop code that makes use of assertions, and distinguish appropriate from inappropriate uses of assertions.
Develop code that makes use of exceptions and exception handling clauses (try, catch, finally), and declares methods and overriding methods that throw exceptions.
Recognize the effect of an exception arising at a specified point in a code fragment. Note that the exception may be a runtime exception, a checked exception, or an error.
Recognize situations that will result in any of the following being thrown: ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException,ClassCastException, IllegalArgumentException, IllegalStateException, NullPointerException, NumberFormatException, AssertionError, ExceptionInInitializerError, StackOverflowError or NoClassDefFoundError. Understand which of these are thrown by the virtual machine and recognize situations in which others should be thrown programatically.
Section 3: API Contents
Develop code that uses the primitive wrapper classes (such as Boolean, Character, Double, Integer, etc.), and/or autoboxing & unboxing. Discuss the differences between the String, StringBuilder, and StringBuffer classes.
Given a scenario involving navigating file systems, reading from files, or writing to files, develop the correct solution using the following classes (sometimes in combination), from java.io: BufferedReader,BufferedWriter, File, FileReader, FileWriter and PrintWriter.
Develop code that serializes and/or de-serializes objects using the following APIs from java.io: DataInputStream, DataOutputStream, FileInputStream, FileOutputStream, ObjectInputStream, ObjectOutputStream and Serializable.
Use standard J2SE APIs in the java.text package to correctly format or parse dates, numbers, and currency values for a specific locale; and, given a scenario, determine the appropriate methods to use if you want to use the default locale or a specific locale. Describe the purpose and use of the java.util.Locale class.
Write code that uses standard J2SE APIs in the java.util and java.util.regex packages to format or parse strings or streams. For strings, write code that uses the Pattern and Matcher classes and the String.split method. Recognize and use regular expression patterns for matching (limited to: . (dot), * (star), + (plus), ?, \d, \s, \w, [], ()). The use of *, +, and ? will be limited to greedy quantifiers, and the parenthesis operator will only be used as a grouping mechanism, not for capturing content during matching. For streams, write code using the Formatter and Scanner classes and the PrintWriter.format/printf methods. Recognize and use formatting parameters (limited to: %b, %c, %d, %f, %s) in format strings.
Section 4: Concurrency
Write code to define, instantiate, and start new threads using both java.lang.Thread and java.lang.Runnable.
Recognize the states in which a thread can exist, and identify ways in which a thread can transition from one state to another.
Given a scenario, write code that makes appropriate use of object locking to protect static or instance variables from concurrent access problems.
Given a scenario, write code that makes appropriate use of wait, notify, or notifyAll.
Section 5: OO Concepts
Develop code that implements tight encapsulation, loose coupling, and high cohesion in classes, and describe the benefits.
Given a scenario, develop code that demonstrates the use of polymorphism. Further, determine when casting will be necessary and recognize compiler vs. runtime errors related to object reference casting.
Explain the effect of modifiers on inheritance with respect to constructors, instance or static variables, and instance or static methods.
Given a scenario, develop code that declares and/or invokes overridden or overloaded methods and code that declares and/or invokes superclass, overridden, or overloaded constructors.
Develop code that implements "is-a" and/or "has-a" relationships.
Section 6: Collections / Generics
Given a design scenario, determine which collection classes and/or interfaces should be used to properly implement that design, including the use of the Comparable interface.
Distinguish between correct and incorrect overrides of corresponding hashCode and equals methods, and explain the difference between == and the equals method.
Write code that uses the generic versions of the Collections API, in particular, the Set, List, and Map interfaces and implementation classes. Recognize the limitations of the non-generic Collections API and how to refactor code to use the generic versions.
Develop code that makes proper use of type parameters in class/interface declarations, instance variables, method arguments, and return types; and write generic methods or methods that make use of wildcard types and understand the similarities and differences between these two approaches.
Use capabilities in the java.util package to write code to manipulate a list by sorting, performing a binary search, or converting the list to an array. Use capabilities in the java.util package to write code to manipulate an array by sorting, performing a binary search, or converting the array to a list. Use the java.util.Comparator and java.lang.Comparable interfaces to affect the sorting of lists and arrays. Furthermore, recognize the effect of the "natural ordering" of primitive wrapper classes and java.lang.String on sorting.
Section 7: Fundamentals
Given a code example and a scenario, write code that uses the appropriate access modifiers, package declarations, and import statements to interact with (through access or inheritance) the code in the example.
Given an example of a class and a command-line, determine the expected runtime behavior.
Determine the effect upon object references and primitive values when they are passed into methods that perform assignments or other modifying operations on the parameters.
Given a code example, recognize the point at which an object becomes eligible for garbage collection, and determine what is and is not guaranteed by the garbage collection system. Recognize the behaviors of System.gc and finalization.
Given the fully-qualified name of a class that is deployed inside and/or outside a JAR file, construct the appropriate directory structure for that class. Given a code example and a classpath, determine whether the classpath will allow the code to compile successfully.
Write code that correctly applies the appropriate operators including assignment operators (limited to: =, +=, -=), arithmetic operators (limited to: +, -, *, /, %, ++, --), relational operators (limited to: <, <=, >, >=, ==, !=), the instanceof operator, logical operators (limited to: &, |, ^, !, &&, ||), and the conditional operator ( ? : ), to produce a desired result. Write code that determines the equality of two objects or two primitives.

Differences between SCJP 1.4 and SCJP 5.0  

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1. Time limit has been increased from 120 mins to 175 mins. 2. Number of questions has been increased from 61 to 72 3. Pass percentage has been increased from 51% to 59% Differences in syllabus With J2SE 5.0 Sun has inroduced many new features in the Java language. The changes in the exam reflect these changes. You will have to have a very good knowlewdge of these changes for SCJP 5.0 exam. The new objectives are 1.Develop code that declares classes (including abstract and all forms of nested classes), interfaces, and enums, and includes the appropriate use of package and import statements (including static imports). You have to know about the enumerated data types and static imports, features missing in 1.4 2.Develop code that declares both static and non-static methods, and - if appropriate - use method names that adhere to the JavaBeans naming standards. Also develop code that declares and uses a variable-length argument list. JavaBeans naming convention has been added for the first time. Variable length arguments are a new addition to the language. 3. Recognize situations that will result in any of the following being thrown: ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException,ClassCastException, IllegalArgumentException, IllegalStateException, NullPointerException, NumberFormatException, AssertionError, ExceptionInInitializerError, StackOverflowError or NoClassDefFoundError. Understand which of these are thrown by the virtual machine and recognize situations in which others should be thrown programatically. Though Exceptions were present in the earlier exams you were not required to know their names. No earlier objective mentioned any specific Exception. 4. Given a scenario involving navigating file systems, reading from files, or writing to files, develop the correct solution using the following classes (sometimes in combination), from java.io: BufferedReader,BufferedWriter, File, FileReader, FileWriter and PrintWriter. Develop code that serializes and/or de-serializes objects using the following APIs from java.io: DataInputStream, DataOutputStream, FileInputStream, FileOutputStream, ObjectInputStream, ObjectOutputStream and Serializable. File handling was required knowledge in SCJP 1.2, then it was removed in 1.4 and now it again makes a comeback. 5.Use standard J2SE APIs in the java.text package to correctly format or parse dates, numbers, and currency values for a specific locale; and, given a scenario, determine the appropriate methods to use if you want to use the default locale or a specific locale. Describe the purpose and use of the java.util.Locale class. With the increasing importance of localisation and Javas support for it, knowledge of locales is now required for the exams. 6.Write code that uses standard J2SE APIs in the java.util and java.util.regex packages.......... Regualar Expressions havebeen introduced. 7.Write code that uses the generic versions of the Collections API, in particular, the Set, List, and Map interfaces and implementation classes. Recognize the limitations of the non-generic Collections API and how to refactor code to use the generic versions. Introduction of generics makes a significant difference to how the Collection framework is to be used. So generics makes a entry to the exams. 8.Develop code that uses the primitive wrapper classes (such as Boolean, Character, Double, Integer, etc.), and/or autoboxing & unboxing. Discuss the differences between the String, StringBuilder, and StringBuffer classes. Autoboxing and unboxing, StringBuilder are new topics. Old objectives not present are: 1. You donot need to learn the methods of Math class. 2. There is less emphasis on wrpper types. In particular you donot need to learn the methods of Wrapper types.

Traps in SCJP exam  

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Two public classes in the same file.

Main method calling a non-static method.

Methods with the same name as the constructor(s).

Thread initiation with classes that dont have a run() method.

Local inner classes trying to access non-final vars.

Case statements with values out of permissible range.

Math class being an option for immutable classes !!

instanceOf is not same as instanceof

Private constructors

An assignment statement which looks like a comparison if ( a=true)...

System.exit() in try-catch-finally blocks.

Uninitialized variable references with no path of proper initialization.

Order of try-catch-finally blocks matters.

main() can be declared final.

-0.0 == 0.0 is true.

A class without abstract methods can still be declared abstract.

RandomAccessFile descends from Object and implements DataInput and DataOutput.

Map doesnot implement Collection.

Dictionary is a class, not an interface.

Collection is an Interface where as Collections is a helper class.

Class declarations can come in any order ( derived first, base next etc. ).

Forward references to variables gives compiler error.

Multi dimensional arrays can be sparce ie., if you imagine the array as a matrix, every row need not have the same number of columns.

Arrays, whether local or class-level, are always initialized,

Strings are initialized to null, not empty string.

An empty string is NOT the same as a null string.

A declaration cannot be labelled.

continue must be in a loop( for, do , while ). It cannot appear in case constructs.

Primitive array types can never be assigned to each other, eventhough the primitives themselves can be assigned. ie., ArrayofLongPrimitives = ArrayofIntegerPrimitives gives compiler error eventhough longvar = intvar is perfectly valid.

A constructor can throw any exception.

Initilializer blocks are executed in the order of declaration.

Instance initializer(s) gets executed ONLY IF the objects are constructed.

All comparisons involving NaN and a non-Nan would always result false.

Default type of a numeric literal with a decimal point is double.

integer (and long ) operations / and % can throw ArithmeticException while float / and % will never, even in case of division by zero.

== gives compiler error if the operands are cast-incompatible.

You can never cast objects of sibling classes( sharing the same parent ), even with an explicit cast.

.equals returns false if the object types are different.It does not raise a compiler error.

No inner class can have a static member.

File class has NO methods to deal with the contents of the file.

InputStream and OutputStream are abstract classes, while DataInput and DataOutput are interfaces.

Chapter 1 Language Fundamentals  

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Originally written by Velmurugan Periasamy. Kept here only for convinience. Copyright belongs to him.

Chapter 1 Language Fundamentals

1. Source file’s elements (in order)

a. Package declaration

b. Import statements

c. Class definitions

2. Importing packages doesn’t recursively import sub-packages.

3. Sub-packages are really different packages, happen to live within an enclosing package. Classes in sub-packages cannot access classes in enclosing package with default access.

4. Comments can appear anywhere. Can’t be nested.(No matter what type of comments)

5. At most one public class definition per file. This class name should match the file name. If there are more than one public class definitions, compiler will accept the class with the file’s name and give an error at the line where the other class is defined.

6. It’s not required having a public class definition in a file. Strange, but true. J In this case, the file’s name should be different from the names of classes and interfaces (not public obviously).

7. Even an empty file is a valid source file.

8. An identifier must begin with a letter, dollar sign ($) or underscore (_). Subsequent characters may be letters, $, _ or digits.

9. An identifier cannot have a name of a Java keyword. Embedded keywords are OK. true, false and null are literals (not keywords), but they can’t be used as identifiers as well.

10. const and goto are reserved words, but not used.

11. Unicode characters can appear anywhere in the source code. The following code is valid.

ch\u0061r a = 'a';

char \u0062 = 'b';

char c = '\u0063';

12. Java has 8 primitive data types.


Data Type

Size (bits)

Initial Value

Min Value

Max Value

boolean

1

false

false

true

byte

8

0

-128 (-27)

127 (27 – 1)

short

16

0

-215

215 - 1

char

16

‘\u0000’

‘\u0000’ (0)

‘\uFFFF’ (216 – 1)

int

32

0

-231

231 - 1

long

64

0L

-263

263 - 1

float

32

0.0F

1.4E-45

3.4028235E38

double

64

0.0

4.9E-324

1.7976931348623157E308


13. All numeric data types are signed. char is the only unsigned integral type.

14. Object reference variables are initialized to null.

15. Octal literals begin with zero. Hex literals begin with 0X or 0x.

16. Char literals are single quoted characters or unicode values (begin with \u).

17. A number is by default an int literal, a decimal number is by default a double literal.

18. 1E-5d is a valid double literal, E2d is not (since it starts with a letter, compiler thinks that it’s an identifier)

19. Two types of variables.

Member variables
· Accessible anywhere in the class.

· Automatically initialized before invoking any constructor.

· Static variables are initialized at class load time.

· Can have the same name as the class.

Automatic variables(method local)
· Must be initialized explicitly. (Or, compiler will catch it.) Object references can be initialized to null to make the compiler happy. The following code won’t compile. Specify else part or initialize the local variable explicitly.



public String testMethod ( int a) {

String tmp;

if ( a > 0 ) tmp = “Positive”;

return tmp;

}

· Can have the same name as a member variable, resolution is based on scope.

20. Arrays are Java objects. If you create an array of 5 Strings, there will be 6 objects created.

21. Arrays should be

1. Declared. (int[] a; String b[]; Object []c; Size should not be specified now)

2. Allocated (constructed). ( a = new int[10]; c = new String[arraysize] )

3. Initialized. for (int i = 0; i <>

22. The above three can be done in one step.

int a[] = { 1, 2, 3 }; (or )

int a[] = new int[] { 1, 2, 3 }; But never specify the size with the new statement.

23. Java arrays are static arrays. Size has to be specified at compile time. Array.length returns array’s size. (Use Vectors for dynamic purposes).

24. Array size is never specified with the reference variable, it is always maintained with the array object. It is maintained in array.length, which is a final instance variable.

25. Anonymous arrays can be created and used like this: new int[] {1,2,3} or new int[10]

26. Arrays with zero elements can be created. args array to the main method will be a zero element array if no command parameters are specified. In this case args.length is 0.

27. Comma after the last initializer in array declaration is ignored.


int[] i = new int[2] { 5, 10}; // Wrong

int i[5] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; // Wrong

int[] i[] = {{}, new int[] {} }; // Correct

int i[][] = { {1,2}, new int[2] }; // Correct

int i[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, } ; // Correct


28. Array indexes start with 0. Index is an int data type.

29. Square brackets can come after datatype or before/after variable name. White spaces are fine. Compiler just ignores them.

30. Arrays declared even as member variables also need to be allocated memory explicitly.

static int a[];

static int b[] = {1,2,3};

public static void main(String s[]) {

System.out.println(a[0]); // Throws a null pointer exception

System.out.println(b[0]); // This code runs fine

System.out.println(a); // Prints ‘null’

System.out.println(b); // Prints a string which is returned by toString

}

31. Once declared and allocated (even for local arrays inside methods), array elements are automatically initialized to the default values.

32. If only declared (not constructed), member array variables default to null, but local array variables will not default to null.

33. Java doesn’t support multidimensional arrays formally, but it supports arrays of arrays. From the specification - “The number of bracket pairs indicates the depth of array nesting.” So this can perform as a multidimensional array. (no limit to levels of array nesting)

34. In order to be run by JVM, a class should have a main method with the following signature.

public static void main(String args[])

static public void main(String[] s)

35. args array’s name is not important. args[0] is the first argument. args.length gives no. of arguments.

36. main method can be overloaded.

37. main method can be final.

38. A class with a different main signature or w/o main method will compile. But throws a runtime error.

39. A class without a main method can be run by JVM, if its ancestor class has a main method. (main is just a method and is inherited)

40. Primitives are passed by value.

41. Objects (references) are passed by reference. The object reference itself is passed by value. So, it can’t be changed. But, the object can be changed via the reference.

42. Garbage collection is a mechanism for reclaiming memory from objects that are no longer in use, and making the memory available for new objects.

43. An object being no longer in use means that it can’t be referenced by any ‘active’ part of the program.

44. Garbage collection runs in a low priority thread. It may kick in when memory is too low. No guarantee.

45. It’s not possible to force garbage collection. Invoking System.gc may start garbage collection process.

46. The automatic garbage collection scheme guarantees that a reference to an object is always valid while the object is in use, i.e. the object will not be deleted leaving the reference “dangling”.

47. There are no guarantees that the objects no longer in use will be garbage collected and their finalizers executed at all. gc might not even be run if the program execution does not warrant it. Thus any memory allocated during program execution might remain allocated after program termination, unless reclaimed by the OS or by other means.

48. There are also no guarantees on the order in which the objects will be garbage collected or on the order in which the finalizers are called. Therefore, the program should not make any decisions based on these assumptions.

49. An object is only eligible for garbage collection, if the only references to the object are from other objects that are also eligible for garbage collection. That is, an object can become eligible for garbage collection even if there are references pointing to the object, as long as the objects with the references are also eligible for garbage collection.

50. Circular references do not prevent objects from being garbage collected.

51. We can set the reference variables to null, hinting the gc to garbage collect the objects referred by the variables. Even if we do that, the object may not be gc-ed if it’s attached to a listener. (Typical in case of AWT components) Remember to remove the listener first.

52. All objects have a finalize method. It is inherited from the Object class.

53. finalize method is used to release system resources other than memory. (such as file handles and network connections) The order in which finalize methods are called may not reflect the order in which objects are created. Don’t rely on it. This is the signature of the finalize method.

protected void finalize() throws Throwable { }

In the descendents this method can be protected or public. Descendents can restrict the exception list that can be thrown by this method.

54. finalize is called only once for an object. If any exception is thrown in finalize, the object is still eligible for garbage collection (at the discretion of gc)

55. gc keeps track of unreachable objects and garbage-collects them, but an unreachable object can become reachable again by letting know other objects of its existence from its finalize method (when called by gc). This ‘resurrection’ can be done only once, since finalize is called only one for an object.

56. finalize can be called explicitly, but it does not garbage collect the object.

57. finalize can be overloaded, but only the method with original finalize signature will be called by gc.

58. finalize is not implicitly chained. A finalize method in sub-class should call finalize in super class explicitly as its last action for proper functioning. But compiler doesn’t enforce this check.

59. System.runFinalization can be used to run the finalizers (which have not been executed before) for the objects eligible for garbage collection.

60. The following table specifies the color coding of javadoc standard. (May be not applicable to 1.2)


Member

Color

Instance method

Red

Static method

Green

Final variable

Blue

Constructor

Yellow



posted by shabda @ 2:07 AM
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Chapter 2 Operators and assignments  

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1. Unary operators.

1.1 Increment and Decrement operators ++ --

We have postfix and prefix notation. In post-fix notation value of the variable/expression is modified after the value is taken for the execution of statement. In prefix notation, value of the variable/expression is modified before the value is taken for the execution of statement.


x = 5; y = 0; y = x++; Result will be x = 6, y = 5

x = 5; y = 0; y = ++x; Result will be x = 6, y = 6


Implicit narrowing conversion is done, when applied to byte, short or char.


1.2 Unary minus and unary plus + -

+ has no effect than to stress positivity.

- negates an expression’s value. (2’s complement for integral expressions)

1.3 Negation !

Inverts the value of a boolean expression.

1.4 Complement ~

Inverts the bit pattern of an integral expression. (1’s complement – 0s to 1s and 1s to 0s)

Cannot be applied to non-integral types.

1.5 Cast ()

Persuades compiler to allow certain assignments. Extensive checking is done at compile and runtime to ensure type-safety.

2. Arithmetic operators - *, /, %, +, -

· Can be applied to all numeric types.

· Can be applied to only the numeric types, except ‘+’ – it can be applied to Strings as well.

· All arithmetic operations are done at least with ‘int’. (If types are smaller, promotion happens. Result will be of a type at least as wide as the wide type of operands)

· Accuracy is lost silently when arithmetic overflow/error occurs. Result is a nonsense value.

· Integer division by zero throws an exception.

· % - reduce the magnitude of LHS by the magnitude of RHS. (continuous subtraction)

· % - sign of the result entirely determined by sign of LHS

· 5 % 0 throws an ArithmeticException.

· Floating point calculations can produce NaN (square root of a negative no) or Infinity ( division by zero). Float and Double wrapper classes have named constants for NaN and infinities.

· NaN’s are non-ordinal for comparisons. x == Float.NaN won’t work. Use Float.IsNaN(x) But equals method on wrapper objects(Double or Float) with NaN values compares Nan’s correctly.

· Infinities are ordinal. X == Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY will give expected result.

· + also performs String concatenation (when any operand in an expression is a String). The language itself overloads this operator. toString method of non-String object operands are called to perform concatenation. In case of primitives, a wrapper object is created with the primitive value and toString method of that object is called. (“Vel” + 3 will work.)

· Be aware of associativity when multiple operands are involved.

System.out.println( 1 + 2 + “3” ); // Prints 33

System.out.println( “1” + 2 + 3 ); // Prints 123

3. Shift operators - <<, >>, >>>

· <<>

· >> performs a signed right shift. Sign bit is brought in from the left. (0 if positive, 1 if negative. Value becomes old value / 2 ^ x where x is no of bits shifted. Also called arithmetic right shift.

· >>> performs an unsigned logical right shift. 0 bits are brought in from the left. This operator exists since Java doesn’t provide an unsigned data type (except char). >>> changes the sign of a negative number to be positive. So don’t use it with negative numbers, if you want to preserve the sign. Also don’t use it with types smaller than int. (Since types smaller than int are promoted to an int before any shift operation and the result is cast down again, so the end result is unpredictable.)

· Shift operators can be applied to only integral types.

· -1 >> 1 is –1, not 0. This differs from simple division by 2. We can think of it as shift operation rounding down.

· 1 <<>

· Negative numbers are represented in two’s complement notation. (Take one’s complement and add 1 to get two’s complement)

· Shift operators never shift more than the number of bits the type of result can have. ( i.e. int 32, long 64) RHS operand is reduced to RHS % x where x is no of bits in type of result.

int x;

x = x >> 33; // Here actually what happens is x >> 1

4. Comparison operators – all return boolean type.

4.1 Ordinal comparisons - <, <=, > , >=

· Only operate on numeric types. Test the relative value of the numeric operands.

· Arithmetic promotions apply. char can be compared to float.

4.2 Object type comparison – instanceof

· Tests the class of an object at runtime. Checking is done at compile and runtime same as the cast operator.

· Returns true if the object denoted by LHS reference can be cast to RHS type.

· LHS should be an object reference expression, variable or an array reference.

· RHS should be a class (abstract classes are fine), an interface or an array type, castable to LHS object reference. Compiler error if LHS & RHS are unrelated.

· Can’t use java.lang.Class or its String name as RHS.

· Returns true if LHS is a class or subclass of RHS class

· Returns true if LHS implements RHS interface.

· Returns true if LHS is an array reference and of type RHS.

· x instanceof Component[] – legal.

· x instanceof [] – illegal. Can’t test for ‘any array of any type’

· Returns false if LHS is null, no exceptions are thrown.

· If x instanceof Y is not allowed by compiler, then Y y = (Y) x is not a valid cast expression. If x instanceof Y is allowed and returns false, the above cast is valid but throws a ClassCastException at runtime. If x instanceof Y returns true, the above cast is valid and runs fine.

4.3 Equality comparisons - ==, !=

· For primitives it’s a straightforward value comparison. (promotions apply)

· For object references, this doesn’t make much sense. Use equals method for meaningful comparisons. (Make sure that the class implements equals in a meaningful way, like for X.equals(Y) to be true, Y instance of X must be true as well)

· For String literals, == will return true, this is because of compiler optimization.

5. Bit-wise operators - &, ^, |

· Operate on numeric and boolean operands.

· & - AND operator, both bits must be 1 to produce 1.

· | - OR operator, any one bit can be 1 to produce 1.

· ^ - XOR operator, any one bit can be 1, but not both, to produce 1.

· In case of booleans true is 1, false is 0.

· Can’t cast any other type to boolean.

6. Short-circuit logical operators - &&, ||

· Operate only on boolean types.

· RHS might not be evaluated (hence the name short-circuit), if the result can be determined only by looking at LHS.

· false && X is always false.

· true || X is always true.

· RHS is evaluated only if the result is not certain from the LHS.

· That’s why there’s no logical XOR operator. Both bits need to be known to calculate the result.

· Short-circuiting doesn’t change the result of the operation. But side effects might be changed. (i.e. some statements in RHS might not be executed, if short-circuit happens. Be careful)

7. Ternary operator

· Format a = x ? b : c ;

· x should be a boolean expression.

· Based on x, either b or c is evaluated. Both are never evaluated.

· b will be assigned to a if x is true, else c is assigned to a.

· b and c should be assignment compatible to a.

· b and c are made identical during the operation according to promotions.

8. Assignment operators.

· Simple assignment =.

· op= calculate and assign operators(extended assignment operators)

· *=, /=, %=, +=, -=

· x += y means x = x + y. But x is evaluated only once. Be aware.

· Assignment of reference variables copies the reference value, not the object body.

· Assignment has value, value of LHS after assignment. So a = b = c = 0 is legal. c = 0 is executed first, and the value of the assignment (0) assigned to b, then the value of that assignment (again 0) is assigned to a.

· Extended assignment operators do an implicit cast. (Useful when applied to byte, short or char)

byte b = 10;

b = b + 10; // Won’t compile, explicit cast required since the expression evaluates to an int

b += 10; // OK, += does an implicit cast from int to byte


9. General

· In Java, No overflow or underflow of integers happens. i.e. The values wrap around. Adding 1 to the maximum int value results in the minimum value.

· Always keep in mind that operands are evaluated from left to right, and the operations are executed in the order of precedence and associativity.

· Unary Postfix operators and all binary operators (except assignment operators) have left to right assoiciativity.

· All unary operators (except postfix operators), assignment operators, ternary operator, object creation and cast operators have right to left assoiciativity.

· Inspect the following code.

public class Precedence {

final public static void main(String args[]) {

int i = 0;

i = i++;

i = i++;

i = i++;

System.out.println(i); // prints 0, since = operator has the lowest precedence.


int array[] = new int[5];

int index = 0;

array[index] = index = 3; // 1st element gets assigned to 3, not the 4th element


for (int c = 0; c <>

System.out.println(array[c]);

System.out.println("index is " + index); // prints 3

}

}

Chapter 3 Modifiers  

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1. Modifiers are Java keywords that provide information to compiler about the nature of the code, data and classes.

2. Access modifiers – public, protected, private

· Only applied to class level variables. Method variables are visible only inside the method.

· Can be applied to class itself (only to inner classes declared at class level, no such thing as protected or private top level class)

· Can be applied to methods and constructors.

· If a class is accessible, it doesn’t mean, the members are also accessible. Members’ accessibility determines what is accessible and what is not. But if the class is not accessible, the members are not accessible, even though they are declared public.

· If no access modifier is specified, then the accessibility is default package visibility. All classes in the same package can access the feature. It’s called as friendly access. But friendly is not a Java keyword. Same directory is same package in Java’s consideration.

· ‘private’ means only the class can access it, not even sub-classes. So, it’ll cause access denial to a sub-class’s own variable/method.

· These modifiers dictate, which classes can access the features. An instance of a class can access the private features of another instance of the same class.

· ‘protected’ means all classes in the same package (like default) and sub-classes in any package can access the features. But a subclass in another package can access the protected members in the super-class via only the references of subclass or its subclasses. A subclass in the same package doesn’t have this restriction. This ensures that classes from other packages are accessing only the members that are part of their inheritance hierarchy.

· Methods cannot be overridden to be more private. Only the direction shown in following figure is permitted from parent classes to sub-classes.


private à friendly (default) à protected à public


Parent classes Sub-classes


3. final

· final features cannot be changed.

· final classes cannot be sub-classed.

· final variables cannot be changed. (Either a value has to be specified at declaration or an assignment statement can appear only once).

· final methods cannot be overridden.

· Method arguments marked final are read-only. Compiler error, if trying to assign values to final arguments inside the method.

· Member variables marked final are not initialized by default. They have to be explicitly assigned a value at declaration or in an initializer block. Static finals must be assigned to a value in a static initializer block, instance finals must be assigned a value in an instance initializer or in every constructor. Otherwise the compiler will complain.

· Final variables that are not assigned a value at the declaration and method arguments that are marked final are called blank final variables. They can be assigned a value at most once.

· Local variables can be declared final as well.

4. abstract

· Can be applied to classes and methods.

· For deferring implementation to sub-classes.

· Opposite of final, final can’t be sub-classed, abstract must be sub-classed.

· A class should be declared abstract,

1. if it has any abstract methods.

2. if it doesn’t provide implementation to any of the abstract methods it inherited

3. if it doesn’t provide implementation to any of the methods in an interface that it says implementing.

· Just terminate the abstract method signature with a ‘;’, curly braces will give a compiler error.

· A class can be abstract even if it doesn’t have any abstract methods.

5. static

· Can be applied to nested classes, methods, variables, free floating code-block (static initializer)

· Static variables are initialized at class load time. A class has only one copy of these variables.

· Static methods can access only static variables. (They have no this)

· Access by class name is a recommended way to access static methods/variables.

· Static initializer code is run at class load time.

· Static methods may not be overridden to be non-static.

· Non-static methods may not be overridden to be static.

· Abstract methods may not be static.

· Local variables cannot be declared as static.

· Actually, static methods are not participating in the usual overriding mechanism of invoking the methods based on the class of the object at runtime. Static method binding is done at compile time, so the method to be invoked is determined by the type of reference variable rather than the actual type of the object it holds at runtime.


Let’s say a sub-class has a static method which ‘overrides’ a static method in a parent class. If you have a reference variable of parent class type and you assign a child class object to that variable and invoke the static method, the method invoked will be the parent class method, not the child class method. The following code explains this.


public class StaticOverridingTest {

public static void main(String s[]) {

Child c = new Child();

c.doStuff(); // This will invoke Child.doStuff()


Parent p = new Parent();

p.doStuff(); // This will invoke Parent.doStuff()


p = c;

p.doStuff(); // This will invoke Parent.doStuff(), rather than Child.doStuff()

}

}


class Parent {

static int x = 100;

public static void doStuff() {

System.out.println("In Parent..doStuff");

System.out.println(x);

}

}


class Child extends Parent {

static int x = 200;

public static void doStuff() {

System.out.println("In Child..doStuff");

System.out.println(x);

}

}

6. native

· Can be applied to methods only. (static methods also)

· Written in a non-Java language, compiled for a single machine target type.

· Java classes use lot of native methods for performance and for accessing hardware Java is not aware of.

· Native method signature should be terminated by a ‘;’, curly braces will provide a compiler error.

· native doesn’t affect access qualifiers. Native methods can be private.

· Can pass/return Java objects from native methods.

· System.loadLibrary is used in static initializer code to load native libraries. If the library is not loaded when the static method is called, an UnsatisfiedLinkError is thrown.

7. transient

· Can be applied to class level variables only.(Local variables cannot be declared transient)

· Transient variables may not be final or static.(But compiler allows the declaration, since it doesn’t do any harm. Variables marked transient are never serialized. Static variables are not serialized anyway.)

· Not stored as part of object’s persistent state, i.e. not written out during serialization.

· Can be used for security.

8. synchronized

· Can be applied to methods or parts of methods only.

· Used to control access to critical code in multi-threaded programs.

9. volatile

· Can be applied to variables only.

· Can be applied to static variables.

· Cannot be applied to final variables.

· Declaring a variable volatile indicates that it might be modified asynchronously, so that all threads will get the correct value of the variable.

· Used in multi-processor environments.

Chapter 4 Converting and Casting  

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Unary Numeric Promotion

Contexts:

· Operand of the unary arithmetic operators + and –

· Operand of the unary integer bit-wise complement operator ~

· During array creation, for example new int[x], where the dimension expression x must evaluate to an int value.

· Indexing array elements, for example table[‘a’], where the index expression must evaluate to an int value.

· Individual operands of the shift operators.


Binary numeric promotion

Contexts:

· Operands of arithmetic operators *, / , %, + and –

· Operands of relational operators <, <= , > and >=

· Numeric Operands of equality operators == and !=

· Integer Operands of bit-wise operators &, ^ and |


Conversion of Primitives

1. 3 types of conversion – assignment conversion, method call conversion and arithmetic promotion

2. boolean may not be converted to/from any non-boolean type.

3. Widening conversions accepted. Narrowing conversions rejected.

4. byte, short can’t be converted to char and vice versa.

5. Arithmetic promotion

5.1 Unary operators

· if the operand is byte, short or char {

convert it to int;

}

else {

do nothing; no conversion needed;

}

5.2 Binary operators

· if one operand is double {

all double; convert the other operand to double;

}

else if one operand is float {

all float; convert the other operand to float;

}

else if one operand is long {

all long; convert the other operand to long;

}

else {

all int; convert all to int;

}

6. When assigning a literal value to a variable, the range of the variable’s data type is checked against the value of the literal and assignment is allowed or compiler will produce an error.

char c = 3; // this will compile, even though a numeric literal is by default an int since the range of char will accept the value

int a = 3;

char d = a; // this won’t compile, since we’re assigning an int to char

char e = -1; // this also won’t compile, since the value is not in the range of char

float f = 1.3; // this won’t compile, even though the value is within float range. Here range is not important, but precision is. 1.3 is by default a double, so a specific cast or f = 1.3f will work.

float f = 1/3; // this will compile, since RHS evaluates to an int.

Float f = 1.0 / 3.0; // this won’t compile, since RHS evaluates to a double.

7. Also when assigning a final variable to a variable, even if the final variable’s data type is wider than the variable, if the value is within the range of the variable an implicit conversion is done.

byte b;

final int a = 10;

b = a; // Legal, since value of ‘a’ is determinable and within range of b

final int x = a;

b = x; // Legal, since value of ‘x’ is determinable and within range of b

int y;

final int z = y;

b = z; // Illegal, since value of ‘z’ is not determinable


8. Method call conversions always look for the exact data type or a wider one in the method signatures. They will not do narrowing conversions to resolve methods, instead we will get a compile error.


Here is the figure of allowable primitive conversion.


byte à short à int à long à float à double


char


Casting of Primitives

9. Needed with narrowing conversions. Use with care – radical information loss. Also can be used with widening conversions, to improve the clarity of the code.

10. Can cast any non-boolean type to another non-boolean type.

11. Cannot cast a boolean or to a boolean type.


Conversion of Object references

12. Three types of reference variables to denote objects - class, interface or array type.

13. Two kinds of objects can be created – class or array.

14. Two types of conversion – assignment and method call.

15. Permitted if the direction of the conversion is ‘up’ the inheritance hierarchy. Means that types can be assigned/substituted to only super-types – super-classes or interfaces. Not the other way around, explicit casting is needed for that.

16. Interfaces can be used as types when declaring variables, so they participate in the object reference conversion. But we cannot instantiate an interface, since it is abstract and doesn’t provide any implementation. These variables can be used to hold objects of classes that implement the interface. The reason for having interfaces as types may be, I think, several unrelated classes may implement the same interface and if there’s a need to deal with them collectively one way of treating them may be an array of the interface type that they implement.

17. Primitive arrays can be converted to only the arrays of the same primitive type. They cannot be converted to another type of primitive array. Only object reference arrays can be converted / cast.

18. Primitive arrays can be converted to an Object reference, but not to an Object[] reference. This is because all arrays (primitive arrays and Object[]) are extended from Object.


Casting of Object references

19. Allows super-types to be assigned to subtypes. Extensive checks done both at compile and runtime. At compile time, class of the object may not be known, so at runtime if checks fail, a ClassCastException is thrown.

20. Cast operator, instanceof operator and the == operator behave the same way in allowing references to be the operands of them. You cannot cast or apply instanceof or compare unrelated references, sibling references or any incompatible references.






Compile-time Rules

· When old and new types are classes, one class must be the sub-class of the other.

· When old and new types are arrays, both must contain reference types and it must be legal to cast between those types (primitive arrays cannot be cast, conversion possible only between same type of primitive arrays).

· We can always cast between an interface and a non-final object.


Run-time rules

· If new type is a class, the class of the expression being converted must be new type or extend new type.

· If new type is an interface, the class of the expression being converted must implement the interface.


An Object reference can be converted to: (java.lang.Object)

· an Object reference

· a Cloneable interface reference, with casting, with runtime check

· any class reference, with casting, with runtime check

· any array referenece, with casting, with runtime check

· any interface reference, with casting, with runtime check


A Class type reference can be converted to:

· any super-class type reference, (including Object)

· any sub-class type reference, with casting, with runtime check

· an interface reference, if the class implements that interface

· any interface reference, with casting, with runtime check (except if the class is final and doesn’t implement the interface)


An Interface reference can be converted to:

· an Object reference

· a super-interface reference

· any interface/class reference with casting, with runtime check (except if the class is final and doesn’t implement the interface)


A Primitive Array reference can be converted to:

· an Object reference

· a Cloneable interface reference

· a primitive array reference of the same type


An Object Array reference can be converted to:

· an Object reference

· a Cloneable interface reference

· a super-class Array reference, including an Object Array reference

· any sub-class Array reference with casting, with runtime check

Chapter 5 Flow Control and Exceptions  

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· Unreachable statements produce a compile-time error.

while (false) { x = 3; } // won’t compile

for (;false;) { x =3; } // won’t compile

if (false) {x = 3; } // will compile, to provide the ability to conditionally compile the code.

· Local variables already declared in an enclosing block, therefore visible in a nested block cannot be re-declared inside the nested block.

· A local variable in a block may be re-declared in another local block, if the blocks are disjoint.

· Method parameters cannot be re-declared.


1. Loop constructs

· 3 constructs – for, while, do

· All loops are controlled by a boolean expression.

· In while and for, the test occurs at the top, so if the test fails at the first time, body of the loop might not be executed at all.

· In do, test occurs at the bottom, so the body is executed at least once.

· In for, we can declare multiple variables in the first part of the loop separated by commas, also we can have multiple statements in the third part separated by commas.

· In the first section of for statement, we can have a list of declaration statements or a list of expression statements, but not both. We cannot mix them.

· All expressions in the third section of for statement will always execute, even if the first expression makes the loop condition false. There is no short –circuit here.

2. Selection Statements

· if takes a boolean arguments. Parenthesis required. else part is optional. else if structure provides multiple selective branching.

· switch takes an argument of byte, short, char or int.(assignment compatible to int)

· case value should be a constant expression that can be evaluated at compile time.

· Compiler checks each case value against the range of the switch expression’s data type. The following code won’t compile.

byte b;

switch (b) {

case 200: // 200 not in range of byte

default:

}

· We need to place a break statement in each case block to prevent the execution to fall through other case blocks. But this is not a part of switch statement and not enforced by the compiler.

· We can have multiple case statements execute the same code. Just list them one by one.

· default case can be placed anywhere. It’ll be executed only if none of the case values match.

· switch can be nested. Nested case labels are independent, don’t clash with outer case labels.

· Empty switch construct is a valid construct. But any statement within the switch block should come under a case label or the default case label.

3. Branching statements

· break statement can be used with any kind of loop or a switch statement or just a labeled block.

· continue statement can be used with only a loop (any kind of loop).

· Loops can have labels. We can use break and continue statements to branch out of multiple levels of nested loops using labels.

· Names of the labels follow the same rules as the name of the variables.(Identifiers)

· Labels can have the same name, as long as they don’t enclose one another.

· There is no restriction against using the same identifier as a label and as the name of a package, class, interface, method, field, parameter, or local variable.

4. Exception Handling

· An exception is an event that occurs during the execution of a program that disrupts the normal flow of instructions.

· There are 3 main advantages for exceptions:

1. Separates error handling code from “regular” code

2. Propagating errors up the call stack (without tedious programming)

3. Grouping error types and error differentiation

· An exception causes a jump to the end of try block. If the exception occurred in a method called from a try block, the called method is abandoned.

· If there’s a catch block for the occurred exception or a parent class of the exception, the exception is now considered handled.

· At least one ‘catch’ block or one ‘finally’ block must accompany a ‘try’ statement. If all 3 blocks are present, the order is important. (try/catch/finally)

· finally and catch can come only with try, they cannot appear on their own.

· Regardless of whether or not an exception occurred or whether or not it was handled, if there is a finally block, it’ll be executed always. (Even if there is a return statement in try block).

· System.exit() and error conditions are the only exceptions where finally block is not executed.

· If there was no exception or the exception was handled, execution continues at the statement after the try/catch/finally blocks.

· If the exception is not handled, the process repeats looking for next enclosing try block up the call hierarchy. If this search reaches the top level of the hierarchy (the point at which the thread was created), then the thread is killed and message stack trace is dumped to System.err.

· Use throw new xxxException() to throw an exception. If the thrown object is null, a NullPointerException will be thrown at the handler.

· If an exception handler re-throws an exception (throw in a catch block), same rules apply. Either you need to have a try/catch within the catch or specify the entire method as throwing the exception that’s being re-thrown in the catch block. Catch blocks at the same level will not handle the exceptions thrown in a catch block – it needs its own handlers.

· The method fillInStackTrace() in Throwable class throws a Throwable object. It will be useful when re-throwing an exception or error.

· The Java language requires that methods either catch or specify all checked exceptions that can be thrown within the scope of that method.

· All objects of type java.lang.Exception are checked exceptions. (Except the classes under java.lang.RuntimeException) If any method that contains lines of code that might throw checked exceptions, compiler checks whether you’ve handled the exceptions or you’ve declared the methods as throwing the exceptions. Hence the name checked exceptions.

· If there’s no code in try block that may throw exceptions specified in the catch blocks, compiler will produce an error. (This is not the case for super-class Exception)

· Java.lang.RuntimeException and java.lang.Error need not be handled or declared.

· An overriding method may not throw a checked exception unless the overridden method also throws that exception or a super-class of that exception. In other words, an overriding method may not throw checked exceptions that are not thrown by the overridden method. If we allow the overriding methods in sub-classes to throw more general exceptions than the overridden method in the parent class, then the compiler has no way of checking the exceptions the sub-class might throw. (If we declared a parent class variable and at runtime it refers to sub-class object) This violates the concept of checked exceptions and the sub-classes would be able to by-pass the enforced checks done by the compiler for checked exceptions. This should not be allowed.


Here is the exception hierarchy.

Object

|

|

Throwable | |

| |

| |

| Error

|

|

Exception-->ClassNotFoundException, ClassNotSupportedException, IllegalAccessException, InstantiationException, IterruptedException, NoSuchMethodException, RuntimeException, AWTException, IOException


RuntimeException-->EmptyStackException, NoSuchElementException, ArithmeticException, ArrayStoreException, ClassCastException, IllegalArgumentException, IllegalMonitorStateException,

IndexOutOfBoundsException, NegativeArraySizeException, NullPointerException, SecurityException.


IllegalArgumentException-->IllegalThreadStateException, NumberFormatException


IndexOutOfBoundsException-->ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException, StringIndexOutOfBoundsException


IOException-->EOFException, FileNotFoundException, InterruptedIOException, UTFDataFormatException, MalformedURLException, ProtocolException, SockException, UnknownHostException, UnknownServiceException.



posted by shabda @ 2:21 AM
2 Comments:

scott long said...
regarding: "All expressions in the third section of for statement will always execute, even if the first expression makes the loop condition false. There is no short –circuit here.", are you sure this is true? (or am i misreading the statement)
i.e. this code:

boolean hit = false;
boolean flag = false;
int j = 0;
for (; flag; hit=true)
{
j++;
}
System.out.println("hit=" + hit);

produces "hit=false" (not hit=true)
11:28 AM
scott long said...
regarding: "All expressions in the third section of for statement will always execute, even if the first expression makes the loop condition false. There is no short –circuit here.", are you sure this is true? (or am i misreading the statement)
i.e. this code:

boolean hit = false;
boolean flag = false;
int j = 0;
for (; flag; hit=true)
{
j++;
}
System.out.println("hit=" + hit);

produces "hit=false" (not hit=true)

chapter 6.2 Constructors and Sub-classing  

0 comments

Constructors and Sub-classing

· Constructors are not inherited as normal methods, they have to be defined in the class itself.

· If you define no constructors at all, then the compiler provides a default constructor with no arguments. Even if, you define one constructor, this default is not provided.

· We can’t compile a sub-class if the immediate super-class doesn’t have a no argument default constructor, and sub-class constructors are not calling super or this explicitly (and expect the compiler to insert an implicit super() call )

· A constructor can call other overloaded constructors by ‘this (arguments)’. If you use this, it must be the first statement in the constructor. This construct can be used only from within a constructor.

· A constructor can’t call the same constructor from within. Compiler will say ‘ recursive constructor invocation’

· A constructor can call the parent class constructor explicitly by using ‘super (arguments)’. If you do this, it must be first the statement in the constructor. This construct can be used only from within a constructor.

· Obviously, we can’t use both this and super in the same constructor. If compiler sees a this or super, it won’t insert a default call to super().

· Constructors can’t have a return type. A method with a class name, but with a return type is not considered a constructor, but just a method by compiler. Expect trick questions using this.

· Constructor body can have an empty return statement. Though void cannot be specified with the constructor signature, empty return statement is acceptable.

· Only modifiers that a constructor can have are the accessibility modifiers.

· Constructors cannot be overridden, since they are not inherited.

· Initializers are used in initialization of objects and classes and to define constants in interfaces. These initializers are :

1. Static and Instance variable initializer expressions.

Literals and method calls to initialize variables. Static variables can be initialized

only by static method calls.

Cannot pass on the checked exceptions. Must catch and handle them.

2. Static initializer blocks.

Used to initialize static variables and load native libraries.

Cannot pass on the checked exceptions. Must catch and handle them.

3. Instance initializer blocks.

Used to factor out code that is common to all the constructors.

Also useful with anonymous classes since they cannot have constructors.

All constructors must declare the uncaught checked exceptions, if any.

Instance Initializers in anonymous classes can throw any exception.

· In all the initializers, forward referencing of variables is not allowed. Forward referencing of methods is allowed.

· Order of code execution (when creating an object) is a bit tricky.

1. static variables initialization.

2. static initializer block execution. (in the order of declaration, if multiple blocks found)

3. constructor header ( super or this – implicit or explicit )

4. instance variables initialization / instance initializer block(s) execution

5. rest of the code in the constructor

Interfaces

· All methods in an interface are implicitly public, abstract, and never static.

· All variables in an interface are implicitly static, public, final. They cannot be transient or volatile. A class can shadow the variables it inherits from an interface, with its own variables.

· A top-level interface itself cannot be declared as static or final since it doesn’t make sense.

· Declaring parameters to be final is at method’s discretion, this is not part of method signature.

· Same case with final, synchronized, native. Classes can declare the methods to be final, synchronized or native whereas in an interface they cannot be specified like that. (These are implementation details, interface need not worry about this)

· But classes cannot implement an interface method with a static method.

· If an interface specifies an exception list for a method, then the class implementing the interface need not declare the method with the exception list. (Overriding methods can specify sub-set of overridden method’s exceptions, here none is a sub-set). But if the interface didn’t specify any exception list for a method, then the class cannot throw any exceptions.

· All interface methods should have public accessibility when implemented in class.

· Interfaces cannot be declared final, since they are implicitly abstract.

· A class can implement two interfaces that have a method with the same signature or variables with the same name.


Inner Classes

· A class can be declared in any scope. Classes defined inside of other classes are known as nested classes. There are four categories of nested classes.

1. Top-level nested classes / interfaces

· Declared as a class member with static modifier.

· Just like other static features of a class. Can be accessed / instantiated without an instance of the outer class. Can access only static members of outer class. Can’t access instance variables or methods.

· Very much like any-other package level class / interface. Provide an extension to packaging by the modified naming scheme at the top level.

· Classes can declare both static and non-static members.

· Any accessibility modifier can be specified.

· Interfaces are implicitly static (static modifier also can be specified). They can have any accessibility modifier. There are no non-static inner, local or anonymous interfaces.

2. Non-static inner classes

· Declared as a class member without static.

· An instance of a non-static inner class can exist only with an instance of its enclosing class. So it always has to be created within a context of an outer instance.

· Just like other non-static features of a class. Can access all the features (even private) of the enclosing outer class. Have an implicit reference to the enclosing instance.

· Cannot have any static members.

· Can have any access modifier.

3. Local classes

· Defined inside a block (could be a method, a constructor, a local block, a static initializer or an instance initializer). Cannot be specified with static modifier.

· Cannot have any access modifier (since they are effectively local to the block)

· Cannot declare any static members.(Even declared in a static context)

· Can access all the features of the enclosing class (because they are defined inside the method of the class) but can access only final variables defined inside the method (including method arguments). This is because the class can outlive the method, but the method local variables will go out of scope – in case of final variables, compiler makes a copy of those variables to be used by the class. (New meaning for final)

· Since the names of local classes are not visible outside the local context, references of these classes cannot be declared outside. So their functionality could be accessed only via super-class references (either interfaces or classes). Objects of those class types are created inside methods and returned as super-class type references to the outside world. This is the reason that they can only access final variables within the local block. That way, the value of the variable can be always made available to the objects returned from the local context to outside world.

· Cannot be specified with static modifier. But if they are declared inside a static context such as a static method or a static initializer, they become static classes. They can only access static members of the enclosing class and local final variables. But this doesn’t mean they cannot access any non-static features inherited from super classes. These features are their own, obtained via the inheritance hierarchy. They can be accessed normally with ‘this’ or ‘super’.

4. Anonymous classes

· Anonymous classes are defined where they are constructed. They can be created wherever a reference expression can be used.

· Anonymous classes cannot have explicit constructors. Instance initializers can be used to achieve the functionality of a constructor.

· Typically used for creating objects on the fly.

· Anonymous classes can implement an interface (implicit extension of Object) or explicitly extend a class. Cannot do both.

Syntax: new interface name() { } or new class name() { }

· Keywords implements and extends are not used in anonymous classes.

· Abstract classes can be specified in the creation of an anonymous class. The new class is a concrete class, which automatically extends the abstract class.

· Discussion for local classes on static/non-static context, accessing enclosing variables, and declaring static variables also holds good for anonymous classes. In other words, anonymous classes cannot be specified with static, but based on the context, they could become static classes. In any case, anonymous classes are not allowed to declare static members. Based on the context, non-static/static features of outer classes are available to anonymous classes. Local final variables are always available to them.

· One enclosing class can have multiple instances of inner classes.

· Inner classes can have synchronous methods. But calling those methods obtains the lock for inner object only not the outer object. If you need to synchronize an inner class method based on outer object, outer object lock must be obtained explicitly. Locks on inner object and outer object are independent.

· Nested classes can extend any class or can implement any interface. No restrictions.

· All nested classes (except anonymous classes) can be abstract or final.

· Classes can be nested to any depth. Top-level static classes can be nested only within other static top-level classes or interfaces. Deeply nested classes also have access to all variables of the outer-most enclosing class (as well the immediate enclosing class’s)

· Member inner classes can be forward referenced. Local inner classes cannot be.

· An inner class variable can shadow an outer class variable. In this case, an outer class variable can be referred as (outerclassname.this.variablename).

· Outer class variables are accessible within the inner class, but they are not inherited. They don’t become members of the inner class. This is different from inheritance. (Outer class cannot be referred using ‘super’, and outer class variables cannot be accessed using ‘this’)

· An inner class variable can shadow an outer class variable. If the inner class is sub-classed within the same outer class, the variable has to be qualified explicitly in the sub-class. To fully qualify the variable, use classname.this.variablename. If we don’t correctly qualify the variable, a compiler error will occur. (Note that this does not happen in multiple levels of inheritance where an upper-most super-class’s variable is silently shadowed by the most recent super-class variable or in multiple levels of nested inner classes where an inner-most class’s variable silently shadows an outer-most class’s variable. Problem comes only when these two hierarchy chains (inheritance and containment) clash.)

· If the inner class is sub-classed outside of the outer class (only possible with top-level nested classes) explicit qualification is not needed (it becomes regular class inheritance)


// Example 1


public class InnerInnerTest {

public static void main(String s[]) {

new Outer().new Inner().new InnerInner().new InnerInnerInner().doSomething();

new Outer().new InnerChild().doSomething();

new Outer2().new Inner2().new InnerInner2().doSomething();

new InnerChild2().doSomething();


}

}


class Outer {

String name = "Vel";


class Inner {

String name = "Sharmi";


class InnerInner {


class InnerInnerInner {


public void doSomething() {


// No problem in accessing without full qualification,

// inner-most class variable shadows the outer-most class variable

System.out.println(name); // Prints "Sharmi"

System.out.println(Outer.this.name); // Prints "Vel", explicit reference to Outer


// error, variable is not inherited from the outer class, it can be just accessible

// System.out.println(this.name);

// System.out.println(InnerInner.this.name);

// System.out.println(InnerInnerInner.this.name);


// error, super cannot be used to access outer class.

// super will always refer the parent, in this case Object

// System.out.println(super.name);


System.out.println(Inner.this.name); // Prints "Sharmi", Inner has declared 'name'

}

}

}

}


/* This is an inner class extending an inner class in the same scope */

class InnerChild extends Inner {

public void doSomething() {

// compiler error, explicit qualifier needed

// 'name' is inherited from Inner, Outer's 'name' is also in scope

// System.out.println(name);

System.out.println(Outer.this.name); // prints "Vel", explicit reference to Outer

System.out.println(super.name); // prints "Sharmi", Inner has declared 'name'

System.out.println(this.name); // prints "Sharmi", name is inherited by InnerChild

}

}

}


class Outer2 {

static String name = "Vel";

static class Inner2 {

static String name = "Sharmi";


class InnerInner2 {

public void doSomething() {

System.out.println(name); // prints "Sharmi", inner-most hides outer-most

System.out.println(Outer2.name); // prints "Vel", explicit reference to Outer2's static variable

// System.out.println(this.name); // error, 'name' is not inherited

// System.out.println(super.name); // error, super refers to Object

}

}

}


}


/* This is a stand-alone class extending an inner class */

class InnerChild2 extends Outer2.Inner2 {

public void doSomething() {

System.out.println(name); // prints "Sharmi", Inner2's name is inherited

System.out.println(Outer2.name); // prints "Vel", explicit reference to Outer2's static variable

System.out.println(super.name); // prints "Sharmi", Inner2 has declared 'name'

System.out.println(this.name); // prints "Sharmi", name is inherited by InnerChild2

}

}


// Example 2


public class InnerTest2 {

public static void main(String s[]) {


new OuterClass().doSomething(10, 20);


// This is legal

// OuterClass.InnerClass ic = new OuterClass().new InnerClass();

// ic.doSomething();


// Compiler error, local inner classes cannot be accessed from outside

// OuterClass.LocalInnerClass lic = new OuterClass().new LocalInnerClass();

// lic.doSomething();


new OuterClass().doAnonymous();


}

}


class OuterClass {

final int a = 100;

private String secret = "Nothing serious";


public void doSomething(int arg, final int fa) {

final int x = 100;

int y = 200;


System.out.println(this.getClass() + " - in doSomething");

System.out.print("a = " + a + " secret = " + secret + " arg = " + arg + " fa = " + fa);

System.out.println(" x = " + x + " y = " + y);


// Compiler error, forward reference of local inner class

// new LocalInnerClass().doSomething();


abstract class AncestorLocalInnerClass { } // inner class can be abstract


final class LocalInnerClass extends AncestorLocalInnerClass { // can be final

public void doSomething() {

System.out.println(this.getClass() + " - in doSomething");

System.out.print("a = " + a );

System.out.print(" secret = " + secret);

// System.out.print(" arg = " + arg); // Compiler error, accessing non-final argument

System.out.print(" fa = " + fa);

System.out.println(" x = " + x);

// System.out.println(" y = " + y); // Compiler error, accessing non-final variable

}

}


new InnerClass().doSomething(); // forward reference fine for member inner class

new LocalInnerClass().doSomething();

}


abstract class AncestorInnerClass { }


interface InnerInterface { final int someConstant = 999;} // inner interface


class InnerClass extends AncestorInnerClass implements InnerInterface {

public void doSomething() {

System.out.println(this.getClass() + " - in doSomething");

System.out.println("a = " + a + " secret = " + secret + " someConstant = " + someConstant);

}

}


public void doAnonymous() {

// Anonymous class implementing the inner interface

System.out.println((new InnerInterface() { }).someConstant);


// Anonymous class extending the inner class

( new InnerClass() {

public void doSomething() {

secret = "secret is changed";

super.doSomething();

}

} ).doSomething();

}

}




Entity

Declaration Context

Accessibility Modifiers

Outer instance

Direct Access to enclosing context

Defines static or non-static members

Package level class

As package member

Public or default

No

N/A

Both static and non-static

Top level nested class (static)

As static class member

All

No

Static members in enclosing context

Both static and non-static

Non static inner class

As non-static class member

All

Yes

All members in enclosing context

Only non-static

Local class (non-static)

In block with non-static context

None

Yes

All members in enclosing context + local final variables

Only non-static

Local class (static)

In block with static context

None

No

Static members in enclosing context + local final variables

Only non-static

Anonymous class (non-static)

In block with non-static context

None

Yes

All members in enclosing context + local final variables

Only non-static

Anonymous class (static)

In block with static context

None

No

Static members in enclosing context + local final variables

Only non-static

Package level interface

As package member

Public or default

No

N/A

Static variables and non-static method prototypes

Top level nested interface (static)

As static class member

All

No

Static members in enclosing context

Static variables and non-static method prototypes

Chapter 6.1 Objects and Classes  

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Implementing OO relationships

· “is a” relationship is implemented by inheritance (extends keyword)

· “has a” relationship is implemented by providing the class with member variables.


Overloading and Overriding

· Overloading is an example of polymorphism. (operational / parametric)

· Overriding is an example of runtime polymorphism (inclusive)

· A method can have the same name as another method in the same class, provided it forms either a valid overload or override


Overloading

Overriding

Signature has to be different. Just a difference in return type is not enough.

Signature has to be the same. (including the return type)

Accessibility may vary freely.

Overriding methods cannot be more private than the overridden methods.

Exception list may vary freely.

Overriding methods may not throw more checked exceptions than the overridden methods.

Just the name is reused. Methods are independent methods. Resolved at compile-time based on method signature.

Related directly to sub-classing. Overrides the parent class method. Resolved at run-time based on type of the object.

Can call each other by providing appropriate argument list.

Overriding method can call overridden method by super.methodName(), this can be used only to access the immediate super-class’s method. super.super won’t work. Also, a class outside the inheritance hierarchy can’t use this technique.

Methods can be static or non-static. Since the methods are independent, it doesn’t matter. But if two methods have the same signature, declaring one as static and another as non-static does not provide a valid overload. It’s a compile time error.

static methods don’t participate in overriding, since they are resolved at compile time based on the type of reference variable. A static method in a sub-class can’t use ‘super’ (for the same reason that it can’t use ‘this’ for)


Remember that a static method can’t be overridden to be non-static and a non-static method can’t be overridden to be static. In other words, a static method and a non-static method cannot have the same name and signature (if signatures are different, it would have formed a valid overload)

There’s no limit on number of overloaded methods a class can have.

Each parent class method may be overridden at most once in any sub-class. (That is, you cannot have two identical methods in the same class)


· Variables can also be overridden, it’s known as shadowing or hiding. But, member variable references are resolved at compile-time. So at the runtime, if the class of the object referred by a parent class reference variable, is in fact a sub-class having a shadowing member variable, only the parent class variable is accessed, since it’s already resolved at compile time based on the reference variable type. Only methods are resolved at run-time.


public class Shadow {

public static void main(String s[]) {

S1 s1 = new S1();

S2 s2 = new S2();


System.out.println(s1.s); // prints S1

System.out.println(s1.getS()); // prints S1


System.out.println(s2.s); // prints S2

System.out.println(s2.getS()); // prints S2


s1 = s2;


System.out.println(s1.s); // prints S1, not S2 -

// since variable is resolved at compile time


System.out.println(s1.getS()); // prints S2 -

// since method is resolved at run time

}

}


class S1 {

public String s = "S1";


public String getS() {

return s;

}

}


class S2 extends S1{

public String s = "S2";


public String getS() {

return s;

}

}

In the above code, if we didn’t have the overriding getS() method in the sub-class and if we call the method from sub-class reference variable, the method will return only the super-class member variable value. For explanation, see the following point.


· Also, methods access variables only in context of the class of the object they belong to. If a sub-class method calls explicitly a super class method, the super class method always will access the super-class variable. Super class methods will not access the shadowing variables declared in subclasses because they don’t know about them. (When an object is created, instances of all its super-classes are also created.) But the method accessed will be again subject to dynamic lookup. It is always decided at runtime which implementation is called. (Only static methods are resolved at compile-time)


public class Shadow2 {

String s = "main";

public static void main(String s[]) {

S2 s2 = new S2();

s2.display(); // Produces an output – S1, S2


S1 s1 = new S1();

System.out.println(s1.getS()); // prints S1

System.out.println(s2.getS()); // prints S1 – since super-class method

// always accesses super-class variable


}

}


class S1 {

String s = "S1";

public String getS() {

return s;

}

void display() {

System.out.println(s);

}

}


class S2 extends S1{

String s = "S2";

void display() {

super.display(); // Prints S1

System.out.println(s); // prints S2

}

}


· With OO languages, the class of the object may not be known at compile-time (by virtue of inheritance). JVM from the start is designed to support OO. So, the JVM insures that the method called will be from the real class of the object (not with the variable type declared). This is accomplished by virtual method invocation (late binding). Compiler will form the argument list and produce one method invocation instruction – its job is over. The job of identifying and calling the proper target code is performed by JVM.

· JVM knows about the variable’s real type at any time since when it allocates memory for an object, it also marks the type with it. Objects always know ‘who they are’. This is the basis of instanceof operator.

· Sub-classes can use super keyword to access the shadowed variables in super-classes. This technique allows for accessing only the immediate super-class. super.super is not valid. But casting the ‘this’ reference to classes up above the hierarchy will do the trick. By this way, variables in super-classes above any level can be accessed from a sub-class, since variables are resolved at compile time, when we cast the ‘this’ reference to a super-super-class, the compiler binds the super-super-class variable. But this technique is not possible with methods since methods are resolved always at runtime, and the method gets called depends on the type of object, not the type of reference variable. So it is not at all possible to access a method in a super-super-class from a subclass.


public class ShadowTest {

public static void main(String s[]){

new STChild().demo();

}

}

class STGrandParent {

double wealth = 50000.00;

public double getWealth() {

System.out.println("GrandParent-" + wealth);

return wealth;

}

}

class STParent extends STGrandParent {

double wealth = 100000.00;

public double getWealth() {

System.out.println("Parent-" + wealth);

return wealth;

}

}

class STChild extends STParent {

double wealth = 200000.00;


public double getWealth() {

System.out.println("Child-" + wealth);

return wealth;

}


public void demo() {

getWealth(); // Calls Child method

super.getWealth(); // Calls Parent method

// Compiler error, GrandParent method cannot be accessed

//super.super.getWealth();

// Calls Child method, due to dynamic method lookup

((STParent)this).getWealth();

// Calls Child method, due to dynamic method lookup

((STGrandParent)this).getWealth();


System.out.println(wealth); // Prints Child wealth

System.out.println(super.wealth); // Prints Parent wealth

// Prints Parent wealth

System.out.println(((STParent)(this)).wealth);

// Prints GrandParent wealth

System.out.println(((STGrandParent)(this)).wealth);

}

}


· An inherited method, which was not abstract on the super-class, can be declared abstract in a sub-class (thereby making the sub-class abstract). There is no restriction. In the same token, a subclass can be declared abstract regardless of whether the super-class was abstract or not.

· Private members are not inherited, but they do exist in the sub-classes. Since the private methods are not inherited, they cannot be overridden. A method in a subclass with the same signature as a private method in the super-class is essentially a new method, independent from super-class, since the private method in the super-class is not visible in the sub-class.


public class PrivateTest {

public static void main(String s[]){

new PTSuper().hi(); // Prints always Super

new PTSub().hi(); // Prints Super when subclass doesn't have hi method

// Prints Sub when subclass has hi method

PTSuper sup;

sup = new PTSub();

sup.hi(); // Prints Super when subclass doesn't have hi method

// Prints Sub when subclass has hi method

}

}


class PTSuper {

public void hi() { // Super-class implementation always calls superclass hello

hello();

}

private void hello() { // This method is not inherited by subclasses, but exists in them.

// Commenting out both the methods in the subclass show this.

// The test will then print "hello-Super" for all three calls

// i.e. Always the super-class implementations are called

System.out.println("hello-Super");

}

}


class PTSub extends PTSuper {

public void hi() { // This method overrides super-class hi, calls subclass hello

try {

hello();

}

catch(Exception e) {}


}


void hello() throws Exception { // This method is independent from super-class hello

// Evident from, it's allowed to throw Exception

System.out.println("hello-Sub");

}

}


· Private methods are not overridden, so calls to private methods are resolved at compile time and not subject to dynamic method lookup. See the following example.


public class Poly {

public static void main(String args[]) {

PolyA ref1 = new PolyC();

PolyB ref2 = (PolyB)ref1;


System.out.println(ref2.g()); // This prints 1

// If f() is not private in PolyB, then prints 2

}

}


class PolyA {

private int f() { return 0; }

public int g() { return 3; }

}


class PolyB extends PolyA {

private int f() { return 1; }

public int g() { return f(); }

}


class PolyC extends PolyB {

public int f() { return 2; }

}


Constructors and Sub-classing

· Constructors are not inherited as normal methods, they have to be defined in the class itself.

· If you define no constructors at all, then the compiler provides a default constructor with no arguments. Even if, you define one constructor, this default is not provided.

· We can’t compile a sub-class if the immediate super-class doesn’t have a no argument default constructor, and sub-class constructors are not calling super or this explicitly (and expect the compiler to insert an implicit super() call )

· A constructor can call other overloaded constructors by ‘this (arguments)’. If you use this, it must be the first statement in the constructor. This construct can be used only from within a constructor.

· A constructor can’t call the same constructor from within. Compiler will say ‘ recursive constructor invocation’

· A constructor can call the parent class constructor explicitly by using ‘super (arguments)’. If you do this, it must be first the statement in the constructor. This construct can be used only from within a constructor.

· Obviously, we can’t use both this and super in the same constructor. If compiler sees a this or super, it won’t insert a default call to super().

· Constructors can’t have a return type. A method with a class name, but with a return type is not considered a constructor, but just a method by compiler. Expect trick questions using this.

· Constructor body can have an empty return statement. Though void cannot be specified with the constructor signature, empty return statement is acceptable.

· Only modifiers that a constructor can have are the accessibility modifiers.

· Constructors cannot be overridden, since they are not inherited.

· Initializers are used in initialization of objects and classes and to define constants in interfaces. These initializers are :

1. Static and Instance variable initializer expressions.

Literals and method calls to initialize variables. Static variables can be initialized

only by static method calls.

Cannot pass on the checked exceptions. Must catch and handle them.

2. Static initializer blocks.

Used to initialize static variables and load native libraries.

Cannot pass on the checked exceptions. Must catch and handle them.

3. Instance initializer blocks.

Used to factor out code that is common to all the constructors.

Also useful with anonymous classes since they cannot have constructors.

All constructors must declare the uncaught checked exceptions, if any.

Instance Initializers in anonymous classes can throw any exception.

· In all the initializers, forward referencing of variables is not allowed. Forward referencing of methods is allowed.

· Order of code execution (when creating an object) is a bit tricky.

1. static variables initialization.

2. static initializer block execution. (in the order of declaration, if multiple blocks found)

3. constructor header ( super or this – implicit or explicit )

4. instance variables initialization / instance initializer block(s) execution

5. rest of the code in the constructor

Interfaces

· All methods in an interface are implicitly public, abstract, and never static.

· All variables in an interface are implicitly static, public, final. They cannot be transient or volatile. A class can shadow the variables it inherits from an interface, with its own variables.

· A top-level interface itself cannot be declared as static or final since it doesn’t make sense.

· Declaring parameters to be final is at method’s discretion, this is not part of method signature.

· Same case with final, synchronized, native. Classes can declare the methods to be final, synchronized or native whereas in an interface they cannot be specified like that. (These are implementation details, interface need not worry about this)

· But classes cannot implement an interface method with a static method.

· If an interface specifies an exception list for a method, then the class implementing the interface need not declare the method with the exception list. (Overriding methods can specify sub-set of overridden method’s exceptions, here none is a sub-set). But if the interface didn’t specify any exception list for a method, then the class cannot throw any exceptions.

· All interface methods should have public accessibility when implemented in class.

· Interfaces cannot be declared final, since they are implicitly abstract.

· A class can implement two interfaces that have a method with the same signature or variables with the same name.


Inner Classes

· A class can be declared in any scope. Classes defined inside of other classes are known as nested classes. There are four categories of nested classes.

1. Top-level nested classes / interfaces

· Declared as a class member with static modifier.

· Just like other static features of a class. Can be accessed / instantiated without an instance of the outer class. Can access only static members of outer class. Can’t access instance variables or methods.

· Very much like any-other package level class / interface. Provide an extension to packaging by the modified naming scheme at the top level.

· Classes can declare both static and non-static members.

· Any accessibility modifier can be specified.

· Interfaces are implicitly static (static modifier also can be specified). They can have any accessibility modifier. There are no non-static inner, local or anonymous interfaces.

2. Non-static inner classes

· Declared as a class member without static.

· An instance of a non-static inner class can exist only with an instance of its enclosing class. So it always has to be created within a context of an outer instance.

· Just like other non-static features of a class. Can access all the features (even private) of the enclosing outer class. Have an implicit reference to the enclosing instance.

· Cannot have any static members.

· Can have any access modifier.

3. Local classes

· Defined inside a block (could be a method, a constructor, a local block, a static initializer or an instance initializer). Cannot be specified with static modifier.

· Cannot have any access modifier (since they are effectively local to the block)

· Cannot declare any static members.(Even declared in a static context)

· Can access all the features of the enclosing class (because they are defined inside the method of the class) but can access only final variables defined inside the method (including method arguments). This is because the class can outlive the method, but the method local variables will go out of scope – in case of final variables, compiler makes a copy of those variables to be used by the class. (New meaning for final)

· Since the names of local classes are not visible outside the local context, references of these classes cannot be declared outside. So their functionality could be accessed only via super-class references (either interfaces or classes). Objects of those class types are created inside methods and returned as super-class type references to the outside world. This is the reason that they can only access final variables within the local block. That way, the value of the variable can be always made available to the objects returned from the local context to outside world.

· Cannot be specified with static modifier. But if they are declared inside a static context such as a static method or a static initializer, they become static classes. They can only access static members of the enclosing class and local final variables. But this doesn’t mean they cannot access any non-static features inherited from super classes. These features are their own, obtained via the inheritance hierarchy. They can be accessed normally with ‘this’ or ‘super’.

4. Anonymous classes

· Anonymous classes are defined where they are constructed. They can be created wherever a reference expression can be used.

· Anonymous classes cannot have explicit constructors. Instance initializers can be used to achieve the functionality of a constructor.

· Typically used for creating objects on the fly.

· Anonymous classes can implement an interface (implicit extension of Object) or explicitly extend a class. Cannot do both.

Syntax: new interface name() { } or new class name() { }

· Keywords implements and extends are not used in anonymous classes.

· Abstract classes can be specified in the creation of an anonymous class. The new class is a concrete class, which automatically extends the abstract class.

· Discussion for local classes on static/non-static context, accessing enclosing variables, and declaring static variables also holds good for anonymous classes. In other words, anonymous classes cannot be specified with static, but based on the context, they could become static classes. In any case, anonymous classes are not allowed to declare static members. Based on the context, non-static/static features of outer classes are available to anonymous classes. Local final variables are always available to them.

· One enclosing class can have multiple instances of inner classes.

· Inner classes can have synchronous methods. But calling those methods obtains the lock for inner object only not the outer object. If you need to synchronize an inner class method based on outer object, outer object lock must be obtained explicitly. Locks on inner object and outer object are independent.

· Nested classes can extend any class or can implement any interface. No restrictions.

· All nested classes (except anonymous classes) can be abstract or final.

· Classes can be nested to any depth. Top-level static classes can be nested only within other static top-level classes or interfaces. Deeply nested classes also have access to all variables of the outer-most enclosing class (as well the immediate enclosing class’s)

· Member inner classes can be forward referenced. Local inner classes cannot be.

· An inner class variable can shadow an outer class variable. In this case, an outer class variable can be referred as (outerclassname.this.variablename).

· Outer class variables are accessible within the inner class, but they are not inherited. They don’t become members of the inner class. This is different from inheritance. (Outer class cannot be referred using ‘super’, and outer class variables cannot be accessed using ‘this’)

· An inner class variable can shadow an outer class variable. If the inner class is sub-classed within the same outer class, the variable has to be qualified explicitly in the sub-class. To fully qualify the variable, use classname.this.variablename. If we don’t correctly qualify the variable, a compiler error will occur. (Note that this does not happen in multiple levels of inheritance where an upper-most super-class’s variable is silently shadowed by the most recent super-class variable or in multiple levels of nested inner classes where an inner-most class’s variable silently shadows an outer-most class’s variable. Problem comes only when these two hierarchy chains (inheritance and containment) clash.)

· If the inner class is sub-classed outside of the outer class (only possible with top-level nested classes) explicit qualification is not needed (it becomes regular class inheritance)


// Example 1


public class InnerInnerTest {

public static void main(String s[]) {

new Outer().new Inner().new InnerInner().new InnerInnerInner().doSomething();

new Outer().new InnerChild().doSomething();

new Outer2().new Inner2().new InnerInner2().doSomething();

new InnerChild2().doSomething();


}

}


class Outer {

String name = "Vel";


class Inner {

String name = "Sharmi";


class InnerInner {


class InnerInnerInner {


public void doSomething() {


// No problem in accessing without full qualification,

// inner-most class variable shadows the outer-most class variable

System.out.println(name); // Prints "Sharmi"

System.out.println(Outer.this.name); // Prints "Vel", explicit reference to Outer


// error, variable is not inherited from the outer class, it can be just accessible

// System.out.println(this.name);

// System.out.println(InnerInner.this.name);

// System.out.println(InnerInnerInner.this.name);


// error, super cannot be used to access outer class.

// super will always refer the parent, in this case Object

// System.out.println(super.name);


System.out.println(Inner.this.name); // Prints "Sharmi", Inner has declared 'name'

}

}

}

}


/* This is an inner class extending an inner class in the same scope */

class InnerChild extends Inner {

public void doSomething() {

// compiler error, explicit qualifier needed

// 'name' is inherited from Inner, Outer's 'name' is also in scope

// System.out.println(name);

System.out.println(Outer.this.name); // prints "Vel", explicit reference to Outer

System.out.println(super.name); // prints "Sharmi", Inner has declared 'name'

System.out.println(this.name); // prints "Sharmi", name is inherited by InnerChild

}

}

}


class Outer2 {

static String name = "Vel";

static class Inner2 {

static String name = "Sharmi";


class InnerInner2 {

public void doSomething() {

System.out.println(name); // prints "Sharmi", inner-most hides outer-most

System.out.println(Outer2.name); // prints "Vel", explicit reference to Outer2's static variable

// System.out.println(this.name); // error, 'name' is not inherited

// System.out.println(super.name); // error, super refers to Object

}

}

}


}


/* This is a stand-alone class extending an inner class */

class InnerChild2 extends Outer2.Inner2 {

public void doSomething() {

System.out.println(name); // prints "Sharmi", Inner2's name is inherited

System.out.println(Outer2.name); // prints "Vel", explicit reference to Outer2's static variable

System.out.println(super.name); // prints "Sharmi", Inner2 has declared 'name'

System.out.println(this.name); // prints "Sharmi", name is inherited by InnerChild2

}

}


// Example 2


public class InnerTest2 {

public static void main(String s[]) {


new OuterClass().doSomething(10, 20);


// This is legal

// OuterClass.InnerClass ic = new OuterClass().new InnerClass();

// ic.doSomething();


// Compiler error, local inner classes cannot be accessed from outside

// OuterClass.LocalInnerClass lic = new OuterClass().new LocalInnerClass();

// lic.doSomething();


new OuterClass().doAnonymous();


}

}


class OuterClass {

final int a = 100;

private String secret = "Nothing serious";


public void doSomething(int arg, final int fa) {

final int x = 100;

int y = 200;


System.out.println(this.getClass() + " - in doSomething");

System.out.print("a = " + a + " secret = " + secret + " arg = " + arg + " fa = " + fa);

System.out.println(" x = " + x + " y = " + y);


// Compiler error, forward reference of local inner class

// new LocalInnerClass().doSomething();


abstract class AncestorLocalInnerClass { } // inner class can be abstract


final class LocalInnerClass extends AncestorLocalInnerClass { // can be final

public void doSomething() {

System.out.println(this.getClass() + " - in doSomething");

System.out.print("a = " + a );

System.out.print(" secret = " + secret);

// System.out.print(" arg = " + arg); // Compiler error, accessing non-final argument

System.out.print(" fa = " + fa);

System.out.println(" x = " + x);

// System.out.println(" y = " + y); // Compiler error, accessing non-final variable

}

}


new InnerClass().doSomething(); // forward reference fine for member inner class

new LocalInnerClass().doSomething();

}


abstract class AncestorInnerClass { }


interface InnerInterface { final int someConstant = 999;} // inner interface


class InnerClass extends AncestorInnerClass implements InnerInterface {

public void doSomething() {

System.out.println(this.getClass() + " - in doSomething");

System.out.println("a = " + a + " secret = " + secret + " someConstant = " + someConstant);

}

}


public void doAnonymous() {

// Anonymous class implementing the inner interface

System.out.println((new InnerInterface() { }).someConstant);


// Anonymous class extending the inner class

( new InnerClass() {

public void doSomething() {

secret = "secret is changed";

super.doSomething();

}

} ).doSomething();

}

}




Entity

Declaration Context

Accessibility Modifiers

Outer instance

Direct Access to enclosing context

Defines static or non-static members

Package level class

As package member

Public or default

No

N/A

Both static and non-static

Top level nested class (static)

As static class member

All

No

Static members in enclosing context

Both static and non-static

Non static inner class

As non-static class member

All

Yes

All members in enclosing context

Only non-static

Local class (non-static)

In block with non-static context

None

Yes

All members in enclosing context + local final variables

Only non-static

Local class (static)

In block with static context

None

No

Static members in enclosing context + local final variables

Only non-static

Anonymous class (non-static)

In block with non-static context

None

Yes

All members in enclosing context + local final variables

Only non-static

Anonymous class (static)

In block with static context

None

No

Static members in enclosing context + local final variables

Only non-static

Package level interface

As package member

Public or default

No

N/A

Static variables and non-static method prototypes

Top level nested interface (static)

As static class member

All

No

Static members in enclosing context

Static variables and non-static method prototypes

Extension Factory Builder